This report characterizes the sources and current dispositions of MSW and trends, reviews policy and economic trends that are affecting the composition of the waste stream globally, and explores waste management strategies that will reduce the dependence on traditional landfilling and incineration. This report describes and analyzes the technologies and economics of recovering various material and energy resources from mixed MSW stream. It also looks at utilizing MSW fractions (such as food waste, paper and plastic) for producing energy, biofuels, and renewable chemicals, in a variety of key ways.
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The chemistry, process technology, and production economics for commercial routes to lactic acid and polylactic acid (PLA) are presented. Fermentative production of lactic acid from dextrose based on existing gypsum-producing technology is compared to a newer gypsum-free process. Historical and projected plant capacities in different geographic regions are also provided.
This PERP provides an in-depth technology, economic, and market analysis on ethylene. Regional cost competitiveness, commercial end-use markets, chemistry review, process descriptions, and simplified PFDs are covered in the comprehensive evaluation. Technologies modeled for economic evaluation include: steam cracking (ethane, propane, butane, naphtha, and gas oil hydrocarbon feeds), methanol to olefins, and dehydration of bio-ethanol to bio-based ethylene.
Routes to adipic acid via KA oil, as well as emerging bio-based routes are discussed in detail. Process economics for seven technologies (including emerging bioroutes by Rennovia and Verdezyne) have been developed (China, N.W. Europe and U.S. bases). Regional market supply demand is included.
Overall techno-economic feasibility of commercial bio-naphtha production and steam cracking is investigated in this report. Various biofeedstocks and potential locations have been incorporated into the technological and production cost analyses of the leading process technologies within the study. Global production, consumption, and trade patterns of the major steam cracker products are included.
This report takes a modular approach to the plethora of potential bio-butadiene routes, which include multiple biobased and conventional catalytic steps. Technology descriptions are presented, markets are discussed and economics developed for North America, South America, Western Europe and Asia for the most promising routes.
This report presents a comprehensive review of commercial and emerging biomass gasification technologies and applications to power, fuels, and chemicals production. Process descriptions are included, as well as regional economics of various feedstock types including North America, South America, Western Europe, and Asia
This report analyzes the production of butanol from renewable sources and associated downstream markets. Technical, commercial, and economic aspects of producing biobutanol by different process technologies are compared and discussed. The various alternatives to convert biobutanols into chemical and polymer products, as well as supplying the large existing markets, are also examined.
This report provides a comprehensive overview of technology options for biojet fuel production. It includes process descriptions and economics for the main routes for the best in class technology developers, as well as a discussion of market potential for North America, South America, Western Europe, and Asia.
The purpose of this report is to analyze biofeedstocks as a source of renewables. Biofeedstocks can be converted into a number of chemical and polymer products through technologies such as fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, catalysis, among others. This study assesses the technical, commercial, and economic aspects of producing biofeedstocks as well as providing supply estimates.