An examination of the technologies and economics of cobalt refining, including examination of existing and novel methods of processing sedimentary copper-cobalt and laterite deposits for cobalt recovery. Coverage includes innovative acid leaching and refining processes as well as battery recycling. Strategic outlook for cobalt is discussed in context of economic modelling, resource geography, and policy changes in critical countries and trading forums.
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Commercial technologies and trends for producing detergent alcohols are discussed in detail. Process economics for several technologies, including synthetic and fatty alcohols, have been developed (U.S., N.W. Europe, and South-East Asia bases). Regional market supply/demand and commercial applications are included.
This report investigates the various developments in biobased fibers for textile applications including natural and synthetic fibers. Commercial technologies for the production of bio based PLA, PHA, PTT, and nylon are analyzed in depth. Analyses include technical descriptions and cost of production estimates. A market summary of the global fibers market is also provided.
Energy storage is growing in importance, and falling in cost, as solar PV, wind, and other renewables become a greater part of generation, and the grid becomes more sophisticated; batteries are a key type of solution, and flow batteries offer many advantages for large-scale and behind the meter storage. This report examines the global market trends, scenarios and opportunities for battery energy storage systems (BESS) in the next 5-10 years, as well as the current and projected technoeconomics of flow batteries in terms of levelized cost of storage and total investment cost.
This report is a comprehensive study of the three major specialty isocyanates: HDI, IPDI and H12MDI. Detailed analyses of the process technologies used for the production of these isocyanates and their feedstocks are included, in addition to cost of production estimates for each isocyanate and sensitivity analyses for the cost of production. The report also provides an overview of industry trends, commercial applications for the isocyanates and global market dynamics.
Polyesters are a family of materials made from a dicarboxylic acid and an alcohol with two or more hydroxy functionalities. The alternating reaction of a carboxylic acid and a hydroxy group, called a condensation reaction, yields a polyester. This report covers a number of specialty polyesters, including PETG, PTT, Copolyester (i.e. TRITAN) and a thermoplastic elastomeric polyester generically referred to as copolyester elastomer (COPE). PET and PBT are covered in separate TECH reports; PETG, PTT and Copolyester were selected for coverage as they are the largest volume materials of the remaining materials. COPE is covered due to its interesting properties and ongoing growth opportunities.
Acetal polymers, also known as polyoxymethylene (POM) or polyacetal are formaldehyde-based thermoplastics that have been commercially available for about 60 years. Polyformaldehyde (the homopolymer of polyacetal) is a thermally unstable material that decomposes on heating to yield formaldehyde gas. Two methods of stabilizing polyformaldehyde for use as an engineering polymer were developed and introduced by DuPont in 1959 and Celanese in 1962. This report outlines the Chemistry, Process Technology, Economics and Commercial aspects associated with the polyacetals.
This report examines the technology, cost of production, environmental impacts & restrictions, and markets for the leading fluorocarbons that are widely utilized today, as well as the latest fluorocarbons that are being commercialized to replace legacy fluorocarbons that have negative environmental impacts.
This report provides an updated overview of the technological, economic and market aspects of selected specialty styrenics, including ASA, MBS, MABS, SMMA. Detailed cost of production estimates for various technologies are presented for USGC, China, Western Europe and Middle East.
Thermal energy storage (TES) technologies and systems provide a major opportunity for better economic benefits and enhanced energy management. This includes expected mismatches in supply and demand for cooling or heating requirements, thereby offsetting differences in time and magnitude of cooling or heating production. TES can also jointly assist in harnessing and integrating “stranded” renewable power supply through possible co-location with distributed energy resources such as based on solar and wind energy. This report provides an overview of the various developing and commercial TES technologies in the United States and includes a methodology for structuring the levelized cost of storage (LCOS).