RNG (renewable natural gas) is a mostly methane stream that is most commonly derived from biogas produced by anaerobic digestion or from landfill gas (LFG) by removing impurities such as CO2, H2S, and water vapor to achieve a purity similar to pipeline fossil natural gas. Other means of production include conventional catalytic methanation of waste CO2 with renewable hydrogen (made by water electrolysis with renewable electricity), and advanced electrochemical processes. RNG can be added to the natural gas pipeline, burned locally for heat and power, or fed to chemical synthesis.
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Renewable diesel encompasses products from bio-based sources that can be substituted with diesel fuel. This report covers non FAME renewable diesel as produced: Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), HVO co-processing with Petroleum, Biomass Pyrolysis Diesel and other routes. Most renewable diesel technologies are relatively competitive with the market price for renewable diesel in the United States.
The process technology and economics for making polymer grade propylene via enhanced FCC processes are assessed. Several enhanced FCC technologies are described. FCC unit economics are compared for the enhanced FCC technologies versus conventional FCC operations with ZSM-5 additive.
This report analyzes the shale gas resource potential of countries outside North America, and identifies the most likely sources of commercial production outside of North America over the next five years. This report also considers petrochemical production economics based on feedstocks currently being utilized and the potential impact of shale gas in countries presently using heavier feedstocks.
This techno-economic report offers a review of the options available to refiners and ship owners to conform to the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) global sulfur specification that will take effect in 2020. Refiners must consider continuing current HSFO production, new fuel oil blending options, installing residue desulfurization technology to produce LSFO or installing residue upgrading technology to reduce HSFO production. Ship owners must comply by purchasing more expensive compliant fuels, installing exhaust gas scrubbing units on their ships or switching to an alternative fuel that is inherently low sulfur. The report also provides economics for these options in various regions under a consistent first quarter 2017 price scenario and includes an analysis of the global bunker fuels market.
This report details the potential uses of fuel grade and calcinable petroleum coke, as well as the processes and chemistry related to their production. Economic analyses of the potential uses are explored. A market analysis of both classes is included.
This report has two key goals: to review and compare the technologies and equipment that are employed to unload, store and vaporize LNG; and to identify and describe the key opportunities and threats facing regasification terminal project development going forward.
This report identifies the principal forms of unconventional gas and discusses the operational and technical challenges faced by the developers of shale gas, tight gas, coal bed methane, and gas hydrate resources. Nexant also presents some of the methods and innovations devised to economically identify and produce these resources, and optimize well operations. Finally, Nexant profiles and assesses global unconventional natural gas production.
This report analyzes the integration of refineries and petrochemical facilities considering integration of steam cracking and aromatics. Regional variations in the extent of integration and the underlying reasons are analyzed. The economic benefits are quantified for three producing regions.
The technologies and economics for the recovery of natural gas liquids (NGLs) are presented. In addition, an overview of the NGL market is provided.