An examination of the technologies and economics of cobalt refining, including examination of existing and novel methods of processing sedimentary copper-cobalt and laterite deposits for cobalt recovery. Coverage includes innovative acid leaching and refining processes as well as battery recycling. Strategic outlook for cobalt is discussed in context of economic modelling, resource geography, and policy changes in critical countries and trading forums.
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This report discusses the process technologies and production economics for ammonia. The different process routes offered by major licensors are reviewed and include technologies by KBR, Haldor Topsøe, thyssenkrupp, Casale, and Linde. Production economics for the United States, Middle East, India, and China are assessed and regional market overviews are presented.
This techno-economic report reviews the chemistry, properties, technology, and development trends of urea. The report provides urea economics for several different global locations (USGC, China, and India) under a consistent third quarter 2019 price scenario. Regional market analysis for urea is also included.
This techno-economic report focuses on cryogenic and non-cryogenic air separation technologies that separate air into commodity gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, and argon. Five players dominate the global market, but many regional suppliers also compete on a local level, providing consumers with many supply choices. The report profiles the major global licensors, describes cryogenic and non-cryogenic technologies to produce oxygen and nitrogen, provides process economics for different production routes, and summarizes commercial applications and market drivers for air separation gases.
This report is a comprehensive study of the lithium industry. In this study, Nexant has produced detailed analyses of the process technologies used for lithium extraction, cost of production estimates for several commercial and emerging extraction routes and sensitivity analyses for the cost of production. As well as these detailed analyses, we provide an overview of industry trends, mining methods, geology and the lithium derivatives market.
This report provides a technical and economic review of processes for the production of ethylene dichloride (EDC) and vinyl chloride monomer VCM). Comparative economics are presented for 4 different EDC processes and 6 VCM processes in various geographic locations. Global and regional market analyses for EDC and VCM are also included.
This report provides a technical and economic review of phosphate and NPK technologies. Comparative economics for different global locations (USGC, China, and the Middle East) are presented for the production of monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, triple superphosphate, and NPK 16.5-16.5-16.5 via a slurry granulation processes, as well as the the production of NPK 16.5-16.5-16.5 using nitrophosphate technology. A regional market analysis for ammonium phosphates and triple superphosphate is also included.
The electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution produces chlorine and sodium hydroxide. In this report, electrochemical technologies and process economics for chlorine and sodium hydroxide production are discussed and evaluated. Technologies include mercury cell, diaphragm cell, membrane cell, and membrane cell integrated with oxygen diffusion electrode or fuel cell.
This techno-economic report offers a review on conventional routes to phosphoric acid and process descriptions for several licensors of phosphoric acid technologies. The report also provides economics developed for several different global locations (USGC, China, and the Middle East) for the dihydrate, hemihydrate, purified wet phosphoric acid, and thermal phosphoric acid.
This techno-economic report offers a review on commercial routes to urea by providing process descriptions for several licensors of urea technologies. The report also provides economics developed for several different global locations (USGC, North Western Europe, the Middle East, and China) for prilling and granulation routes.