This report provides a deep technical review of commercial and developing technologies for caprolactam production. In addition to coverage of conventional caprolactam production from cyclohexane and phenol, this report includes coverage of exotic commercial processes including photonitrozation, toluene oxidation, direct peroxide-based ammoximation and vapor-phase rearrangement, as well as coverage of emerging bio-based caprolactam production. Economics are provided for plants located in the U.S., Western Europe, and China, along with a review of global markets and strategic conditions.
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Ethylene oxide is the second largest ethylene derivative, consuming about 15 percent of global ethylene production. This report provides an analysis of the technology and economics of producing ethylene oxide and some of its key derivatives. Commercial technologies for ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, and ethylene glycol ethers are reviewed along with regional cost of production comparisons.
Plasticizers are a key component in flexible PVC formulations. This report provides analysis of the chemistry, technology and economics of aromatic and aliphatic plasticizers. Plasticizer markets are reviewed, with a focus on industry trends and development of non-phthalate plasticizers. Types of aromatic plasticizers discussed include phthalates, terephthalates, trimellitates and benzoates. Types of aliphatic plasticizers discussed include cycloaliphatics, adipates, polymerics, citrates, fatty acid esters, glycerides and epoxidized soybean oil.
First-generation fermentation ethanol and top synthetic ethanol production technologies are discussed in the context of today’s challenging strategic and policy and environment. Technologies, economics, and markets are covered in detail. Detailed technology descriptions and local economics are given for corn dry milling ethanol production in the US Midwest, the Celanese TCX process in the USGC, and an advanced milling process in Brazil.
This report assesses the relative economics and competitiveness of U.S. ethane exports versus domestic use for petrochemical production and compare it with various MTO options. U.S. ethane supply and demand is forecasted to 2030.
This report reviews current and developing technologies for xylenes production. Cost estimates have been developed for para-xylene production via a number of processes (e.g., EB Isomerization & Dealkylation, TDP & Selective TDP/Crystallization, PxMaxSM/Crystallization, Toluene Alkylation, C9 Transalkylation/Adsorption/Isomerization, Hydrotreating/Reforming) and meta-xylene production via UOP MX Sorbex technology. Commercial end-use applications; global and regional supply/demand/trade forecasts are included.
This report provides an in-depth technology, economic, and market analysis of the acrylic acid and acrylate esters industry. Technologies modeled for economic benchmarking include acrylic acid via two-step propylene oxidation, acrylic acid via polypropiolactone from ethylene oxide, and overviews of developing bio-based routes. Cost of production models for the purification of crude acrylic acid to glacial acrylic acid, as well as the production of acrylate esters (esterification of acrylic acid) are also included.
The chemistry, process technologies and production economics for hydrogen peroxide manufacture are presented. The costs of the Developing Direct Synthesis, Solvay's high yield anthraquinone auto oxidation process and conventional anthraquinone auto oxidation processes are compared, including economic suitability for HPPO application and concentrating to a transportable 70 wt% product.
This supplement provides a cost of production for olefins and polyolefins by region. This report has been developed as a database or regional production costs and location factors over the course of a typical petrochemical cycle. A discussion of the key factors underlying each region's cost estimates has been included.
Ammonium nitrate production technology has been reviewed, including overviews of CAN and UAN production. Cost of production estimates via vacuum and pressure neutralization processes are included. Global and regional supply/demand is given.