Formaldehyde is pungent-smelling gas that dissolves readily in water to form a 37% formaldehyde solution known as formalin. Formaldehyde is produced industrially by the oxidation of methanol over a metal catalyst. Formalin is used as a disinfectant and as a preservative medium for biological specimens. The main industrial application of formaldehyde, however, is in the production of urea-formaldehyde (UF), phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins for the manufacture of wood adhesives (e.g. for plywood and chipboard) and other applications.
Fuel Oil is the term used to define the heavy distillate stream produced from refinery operations. It is used to fuel power stations and in ships and industry. Different fuel oil grades are classified according to their viscosity and sulphur content.